# Concentrated Plasticity Model

**TBDY Chapter 5.3.1 The Stacked Plastics Behavior Model**

**5.3.1.1** - The **Piled ***Plastic Behavior* Model *(Plastic Hinge)* can be used as a nonlinear behavior model for columns, beams, and reinforced concrete walls that *can* be modeled as *frame (rod) finite elements* , and which **meet** the geometric condition given in **4.5.3.8** .

**5.3.1.2** - In the *Lumped Plastic Behavior Model* , it is assumed that plastic deformations occur uniformly along finite-length regions where internal forces reach their plastic capacity. The length (L _{p} ) of the *plastic deformation zone,* which is called the *plastic hinge* length, shall be taken equal to half of the cross section dimension (h) in the running direction (L _{p} = 0.5h).

**5.3.1.3** - The length of the plastic deformation zones of the elements that make plastic deformation only under axial force shall be taken equal to the free length of the relevant element.

**5.3.1.4** - The *plastic hinge* representing the **stacked** plastic deformation should theoretically be placed in the middle of the *plastic deformation zone* specified in **5.3.1.2** . However, in practical applications the approximate idealizations specified in **5.4.2.3** for beams and columns and **5.4.3.1** for walls may be allowed.

**5.3.1.5** - Conditions for defining the effective yield moments of reinforced concrete plastic joint sections are given in **(a)** , **(b)** , **(c) below** :

**(a)** Material strengths will be taken according to **5.4.1.5** .

**(b) In the** calculation of the effective yield moment, the pressure unit deformation of the concrete can be 0.0035, and the unit deformation of the reinforcing steel can be taken as 0.01.

**(c)** Axial forces arising from vertical loads shall be taken into account in the calculation of effective yield moment.

**5.3.1.6** - The hardening effect (increase of plastic moment due to the increase of plastic rotation) in bidirectional internal force-plastic deformation relations of reinforced concrete and steel sections can be abandoned.

**According** to **5.3.1.7** - **5.6** and **5.7** , the elasto-plastic standard cycle model for steel bearing systems as a cyclic behavior model in the *nonlinear* earthquake calculation to be made in the time domain according to **5.6** and **5.7** . Models derived from it can be used to provide

**TBDY Article 5.4.1.5 -** The material strengths given in **(a)** and **(b)** below shall be based on modeling based on evaluation and design according to **shape change** :

**(a)** The *current strengths of* concrete and reinforcement steel defined in **Section 15** shall be taken as basis in the assessment of existing buildings according to deformation .

**(b) In the** evaluation and design of new buildings according to deformation, the *expected (average) strengths of* concrete and reinforcement steel and structural steel defined in **Table 5.1** shall be taken as basis. F in Table _{ce} and f _{ck} concrete and the mean compressive strength characteristic, f _{ate} and f _{yk} shows the mean and the typical yield strength of steel.

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